Archive for May, 2012


Rubble – this material is obtained as a consequence of crushing rock. Get his career by the explosion of rock, which is then crushed into rubble. The most widely used and is a granite rubble. Get crushed and the crushing of boulders and gravel. Fraction of rubble – the average size of the grain.

According to these characteristics, the grain size is the separation of gravel into fractions by sieving. The smaller faction of rubble per unit volume – such as cubic meters of rubble more fines will be harder than cubic meters large, respectively, a ton of rubble various factions will have a different volume, it is very important when you deliver rubble. Density of gravel is measured – the average state standard of 2 to 3 g/cm3 for. Secondary gravel (the product of crushing various materials from brick to concrete and asphalt) has a higher density. Granite rubble. For concrete-construction works, the manufacture of concrete products, landscaping, installation of drainage, leveling monolithic fillings.

Crushed granite is obtained by crushing a granite rock. In the pits when mining granite, first with blocks separated by explosion rocks and then crushed in a crushing machine, and finally sieved and separated into fractions rubble. Fraction of rubble, less is more expensive (more than the cost of fragmentation). Frost resistance of the granitic Drizzle the number of cycles of freezing and thawing, at which the material loses its properties. Frost resistance of gravel is permitted to estimate the number of cycles of a saturated solution of sodium sulfate, followed by drying. Crushed granite also divided into grades by frost. Crushed gravel .Graviyny obtained by sieving rock quarry, and also in the process of crushing natural rock cliffs. Gravel crushed granite inferior in strength, but has less radioactivity and price. Crushed gravel used for foundation works, concrete production, in the manufacture of concrete products, while laying and road building. Limestone. Calcareous (limestone or dolomite) is the main rubble of all natural stone materials used in road construction. It is used both independently and with other materials, as well as a component in asphalt, cement and concrete. Crushed lime for the repair and maintenance of highways is a major component, and protects the wear layer, which provides the desired surface roughness pavement. It turns crushed limestone (dolomite or limestone) from limestone by crushing, followed by chemical treatment of the material obtained. Since the material is fragile limestone, crushed stone derived from it has the brand strength is not high (400 to 800)

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Strengthening the Foundations

Strengthening the foundations – the most laborious process in the repair of any buildings. Selecting the way to strengthen the foundations in the first place depends on the reasons causing it. The destruction of the basement around the perimeter. With this form of destruction along the tape or on the perimeter of pier foundation digging a trench. Surface of the foundation and walls thoroughly cleaned of dirt and old plaster, and then in the design of foundations clog metal net, which, referring to a dis-tance attaches to the anchors, released from foundations and plinth of the wall. Install formwork and concreted. After curing the concrete trench to sleep with a careful layer by layer plugging.

Replacing destroyed part of the foundation. In this case, suit new and additional areas on the sides of foundation, formed in the form of masonry, stone, getting the clutch to the desired width and providing a link between old and new masonry. Foundation base is not deepened. Strengthening areas of foundations. foundations made of rubble, rubble concrete, reinforced concrete, soil-concrete and other materials satisfied with reinforced concrete broadened the clip, which closely relate to the existing masonry through anchored so as to re-made parts "worked" together with the old part of the foundation and transmit the load on the ground. Increasing the bearing capacity of the base stations. If necessary, along the weak, requiring the discharge of foundations on both sides spread a new, for which load from the overlying the building is transmitted through concrete or metal beams passing through the mounting part. Newly laid the foundations of cross-cutting anchor anchors to existing foundations for a joint "work" the old and new foundations.

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The Foundation

Should lay the foundation below the depth of soil freezing, the magnitude of which varies, usually ranging from 80 to 240 cm, depending on the region (for Moscow, for example, the figure is 140 cm). Under heavy walls (stone, brick, concrete, etc.) put tape foundations around the perimeter of the exterior and interior walls. Under the wooden walls as well as deep freezing and heaving soils – columnar. The material used for foundations in situ concrete, concrete blocks, clay brick, iron ore, etc. In order for the foundation last longer without breaking, it is necessary to seal the. Usually used for this purpose bitumen emulsion and special protective mastic (Giperdesmo "," Rabberfleks "," Stromiks ", etc.). In addition to waterproofing, as a rule, make insulation, which is logical: the heat loss through the foundation can reach 15-20%. Formerly widely used for insulation foam, today no less popular with extruded polystyrene (Styrofoam, Penopleks, Styrodur, etc.) – both are indifferent to the material to absorb moisture and biodegradable.

Traditionally it was thought that the wall made of homogeneous material, it is safer than a multi-layered. However, the durability of the material of homogeneous structure decreases with time. In addition, today's building codes (SNIP 23-02.2003) establish a number of stringent requirements for durability, noise and heat insulation of buildings, and experts say that to achieve compliance, if the house walls are made of the same material, almost unreal. World practice demonstrated that the benefits of multi-wall structures are greater durability and less weight to the building.

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Russia Construction

That is why wooden houses all over the world are the most expensive and prestigious. Today in wooden construction used mainly four well-known architectural and construction systems: building construction made of logs, bar, frame and panel construction. In Russia, the most traditional is the construction of houses made of logs (OTSB). For construction is usually used pine or hardwood tree. Most prized timber from northern latitudes, where the tree grows only 3-4 months, very slowly, reaching the age of 100-150 years. This provides an extraordinary strength and density of construction material and natural resin protects the wood from rot and reduces its thermal conductivity. The walls are made of this material hold heat in two times better than a brick wall the same thickness. otsb advantage of when building a house is a smooth, round shape, allows to achieve a tight connection logs.

Identical in length logs, first grind to a diameter of 18-32 cm (the most popular – 28 cm), cut out the necessary grooves for fixing holes for windows and doors. Then the house collect, as a designer. Wall necessarily cover special breathable varnish to provide protection from environmental influences. This avoids the extra costs of repair and decoration of the walls – yet another plus in favor of otsd. The undoubted downside is the price of a house built of logs. It is unlikely that it will be cheaper than a brick (Price per square meter in the new wooden house ranges from 25 to 45 thousand rubles.), And time for construction itself will take much longer (only for shrinkage take a year and a half).

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