The problem of using environmentally clean and free solar energy, moreover, concern of humanity since time immemorial, but only recently has progress in this area will begin to form a real, evolving solar energy market. To date, the main methods of direct use of solar energy are converting it into electricity and heat. Solar radiation can be converted into permanent electric current through a solar cell – a device consisting of a thin film of silicon or other semiconductor materials. The advantage of photovoltaic cells (solar cells) due to lack of moving parts, their reliability and stability. At the same time their life is practically unlimited.

They have a small mass, are easy maintenance, effective use of both direct and scattered solar radiation. The modular design allows you to create the type of installation of almost any power and makes them at the moment is very promising. Solar panels are mainly used so far in space and on Earth only for power autonomous consumers of up to 1 kW power and low-power radio-navigation electronics equipment, electric drive and experimental aircraft. In 1988 in Australia , the first global rally solar cars. However, at present, solar cells are already finding applications in residential homes for independent power supply, ie, heating and hot water, and also to generate electricity for lighting and power appliances. What types of photovoltaic solar cells are there? Autonomous. Used in the absence of network connectivity.

Generated electricity used for lighting, power household appliances (refrigerator, TV, electric oven, dryer), electric appliances (air conditioner, fan, pump), power tools (drill, Bulgarian). Reserve. Connected to networks of poor quality, are used in the event of network outages or poor quality mains supply to meet the load. Connected to the network. If the object is connected to the network centralized power, solar panels can be used to generate your own electricity. Excess electrical energy is commonly sold electricity. PV system consists of photovoltaic modules and additional components: cables, supporting structures and, depending on the type of system (connected to a network or stand-alone back-up), is also an electronic inverter and charge controller with battery.